SUBSTATIONS

Network Studies & Substations

One of Profound Engineering specialised services is the execution of Power System Analysis on existing or new plants. This service is supplied on normally on a Lump Sum basis, but can also be provided on a re-imbursive methodology depending on the client’s needs.

Here Profound Engineering would firstly conduct a thorough site investigation to determine the actual installed equipment with the settings of all the individual equipment and protection relays.

Following this we construct a model of the plant electrical system usually only up to MCC Incomer level on our simulation software.

Our Load Flow, Fault, Harmonic Impedance, Harmonic Injection, Protection Coordination and Transient Stability analysis are then carried out using the ERACS® software package.

The economic design of power systems is critically dependent on being able to predict the system behaviour under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. A number of engineers use customized spreadsheets for calculations and estimates which are possible but this introduces the risk of errors resulting in significant safety and reliability implications.

Trail and tested software allows users to simulate electrical power system networks quickly and easily to judge their correct, safe and timely operation under user defined, and sometimes arduous, situations.

Network Studies & Substations

One of Profound Engineering specialised services is the execution of Power System Analysis on existing or new plants. This service is supplied on normally on a Lump Sum basis, but can also be provided on a re-imbursive methodology depending on the client’s needs.

Here Profound Engineering would firstly conduct a thorough site investigation to determine the actual installed equipment with the settings of all the individual equipment and protection relays.

Following this we construct a model of the plant electrical system usually only up to MCC Incomer level on our simulation software.

Our Load Flow, Fault, Harmonic Impedance, Harmonic Injection, Protection Coordination and Transient Stability analysis are then carried out using the ERACS® software package.

The economic design of power systems is critically dependent on being able to predict the system behaviour under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. A number of engineers use customized spreadsheets for calculations and estimates which are possible but this introduces the risk of errors resulting in significant safety and reliability implications.

Trail and tested software allows users to simulate electrical power system networks quickly and easily to judge their correct, safe and timely operation under user defined, and sometimes arduous, situations.

Typical Protection Grading Curves

Benefits for conducting Power System Analysis Studies

Conducting a power system analysis, clients are able to:

  • save costs
  • reduce risk
  • improve quality
  • increase reliability and safety

Loadflow

A Load Flow study would typically be employed in the following applications and for the following results:

  • selection of transformer tap changer settings
  • system voltage profiling
  • system loss optimisation
  • MW and MVAr power flow analysis
  • equipment loading factors
  • power factor correction location and optimisation
  • system planning
  • generator operating procedures
  • equipment specification
  • impact load studies
  • circuit reconfiguration studies
  • power generation planning

Fault Analysis

Typical applications for the conducting of the Fault analysis are:

  • calculation of data for circuit breaker and switchgear ratings (maximum and minimum 3 phase fault currents)
  • calculation of data for relay and fuse selection and setting
  • calculation of motor fault contribution (this is virtually impossible to do manually)
  • determination of fault current distribution and busbar-voltage levels during a fault

Protection Co-ordination

Typical applications for the use of Protection Co-ordination are:

  • selection of protection devices
  • protection grading studies
  • protection stability studies (under steady state conditions)
  • protection planning philosophy and performance checking
  • protection system safety documentation

Harmonic Injection

A polluting load, such as a rectifier, has the characteristic of drawing a non-sinusoidal current from a sinusoidal voltage supply. Using Fourier analysis the current drawn from the supply may be split into its fundamental and harmonic components. This load may be represented as a harmonic current source “injecting” into the power system. The harmonic current will propagate into the system and react with the network impedance to cause harmonic voltage to appear. This voltage distortion, if excessive, may lead to equipment failure and loss of production.

Transient Stability

Typical applications for the use of Transient Stability are:

  • motor starting studies including starting techniques
  • voltage dip profiling
  • generator load application and rejection tests
  • loss of generation
  • system synchronising
  • system stability studies
  • AVR and governor testing
  • wind farm analysis (torque variation studies)
  • mixed frequency system analysis

Substation Construction

We also specialise in the design, construction and commissioning of electrical substations.

We also do the design and implementation of 275kV transmission lines as well as substations up to 275kV substation.

International Ferro Metals 33kV Indoor Substation

Completed 275kV Substation